Gonorrhea in women is most common in the reproductive age. This sexually transmitted infection can lead to infertility or problems with gestation, so the gonococcal infection requires immediate treatment of both sexual partners. This venereal disease is also called clap disease or clap disease.
According to WHO statistics, gonorrhea is a very common infection. About 200 million people are diagnosed with the disease each year. In the Russian Federation in the 1990s, there was a slight decrease in the growth of the number of cases, but after a few years the situation began to deteriorate. And now the incidence is more than 100 cases per 100 thousand people.
Despite modern methods of treatment, the disease is not fully controlled: the causative agent of gonorrhea mutates, gradually acquiring resistance to the latest antibiotics.
Causative agent of gonorrhea and transmission
The causative agent of gonorrhea - gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, refers to the pair cocci, has a bean-shaped form. Gonococci are located inside the cells, within the cytoplasm of leukocytes. These organisms are highly sensitive to various external factors. They die when the temperature rises to just 55 degrees. Also, for them, the ingress of sunlight and drying out are detrimental. Good effect gives treatment with antiseptic solutions. The bacterium remains viable, being in fresh pus. After it dries, the gonococcus perishes.
Ways of transmitting gonorrhea:
- The main mode of transmission is sexual, when pathogens are transmitted during unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse. 20 - 50% infected with gonorrhea with a single unprotected traditional sexual intercourse. Much less - with oral intercourse.
- The disease from the sick mother is transmitted to the newborn during childbirth. Gonorrheal conjunctivitis of the newborn occurs with the formation of ulcers that heal with a scar. The disease is complicated by blindness.
- With unconventional sexual intercourse, gonorrheal inflammation develops in the rectum, pharynx and tonsils. The disease can be transmitted through vibrators and sex toys of a sick person.
- Due to the instability of bacteria in the external environment, the disease is not transmitted through kisses, personal belongings of the patient, cutlery, toilet, and in the pools.
- Very rarely, the source of infection for little girls is the personal belongings of the mother, who has gonorrhea.
The causative agents of gonorrhea are not able to move, they do not form an argument. These organisms have very thin filaments, due to which they can be kept on the surface of epithelial cells, red blood cells, male germ cells - spermatozoa. On top, each bacterium is covered with a layer of a special substance and is as if in a capsule. Therefore, the destruction of such organisms is difficult. The treatment is complicated by the fact that it is possible to place the pathogen inside epithelial cells, Trichomonas and leukocytes.
The latent (incubation) period for gonorrhea ranges from 2 to 5 days for men and from 5 to 10 days (and even 30 days) for women. During this time, gonococci fall from the mucous layer into the submucosal, causing its destruction.
From there, the infection spreads through the lymphatic system and enters the bloodstream. Spreading retrogradely, gonococci penetrate through the fallopian tubes into the ovaries, causing their inflammation (adnexitis) and into the abdominal cavity. With a sharply reduced immunity, gonococci can spread through the bloodstream and cause sepsis and damage to certain organs - the joints, the mucous membrane of the eyes, the skin, the heart and the brain.
The first signs of gonorrhea, photo
Immediately after infection, gonococcal infection has no clinical manifestations. In women with gonorrhea, the symptoms and treatment are due to the localization of the inflammatory process.
Most often, with this disease, the urethra is affected and gonorrheal urethritis develops with the following symptoms:
- soreness (often pain and burning) when urinating,
- itching in the genital area and, in particular, the urethra,
- increased frequency of urination,
- urine excretion in small portions,
- persistent feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder,
- purulent inclusions in the urine.
It also happens that gonorrhea provokes cervicitis - an inflammatory process in the cervix. The main symptom of this condition is whites, sometimes with purulent inclusions. The rest of the disease is asymptomatic and painless.
The third most frequent symptom complex in women with gonococcal lesions is gonorrheal proctitis, the symptoms of which are:
- pain (sometimes with itching and burning) in the region of the anus,
- feeling of heat as a result of local temperature increase in the anus,
- the need for frequent bowel movements, often without cause.
In women, the chronic form of the disease occurs with prolonged absence of treatment for its acute form. Treatment of chronic gonorrhea is very difficult due to the presence of possible complications. It is possible to completely get rid of the infection in any case, but it is worth remembering that the processes in the body caused by it can be incurable. For example, the cervicitis that is long-lasting and often accompanying gonorrhea gradually leads to the appearance in the cervical area of adhesions that prevent conception and carrying a child. Sometimes this problem can be solved only with the help of surgery.
Chronic gonorrhea is not accompanied by pronounced symptoms, it can be detected by chance during the examination for the presence of any other infection. The basis of her treatment is also antibiotics. The likelihood of complete recovery with all the necessary medical recommendations is 100%.
Tripper during pregnancy
Gonorrhea in pregnant women shows inflammation of the vagina and cervix, premature opening of the membranes or their inflammation, birth fever, septic abortion. Rarely enough up to 4 months of pregnancy gonococcal infection can occur as salpingitis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes). Characterized by the development of gonorrheal vaginitis, which usually does not occur outside of pregnancy and is associated with hormonal changes in the vaginal epithelium.
Symptoms are similar to thrush, but standard drugs do not help. The danger for the child is intrauterine infection with gonococci, postpartum gonorrheal conjunctivitis, in girls - gonorrhea of the genital organs. Pregnant women with gonorrhea are treated in the hospital.
Complications of gonorrhea in women are very serious:
- formation of cervical erosion - non-healing mucosal defect,
- Bartholinitis - inflammation of the large paired glands in the run-up to the vagina, often requiring surgical intervention,
- failure of the menstrual cycle
- frigidity - decrease in sexual desire,
- the spread of infection to the uterus and appendages (often surgery),
- the death of the eyeball of an infected child in childbirth,
- obstruction of the fallopian tubes and ectopic pregnancy,
- infertility, often persistent,
- joint damage,
- miscarriage when infected in early pregnancy,
- oxygen starvation of the fetus, premature labor and sepsis of newborns during infection in late pregnancy,
- in the most severe cases - peritonitis, damage to the heart and brain.
Diagnosis of the disease
The start of gonorrhea diagnosis is a patient survey and history taking. Further, the patient is examined to detect the causative agent of the disease, the consideration of the clinical manifestations of the disease. However, the most accurate results show the results of the analyzes.
Bacterioscopic examination consists of smear staining using a special method that detects pathogenic microorganisms with acute gonorrhea with almost 100% accuracy. Chronic gonorrhea is much more difficult to detect. The bacteriological method allows determining the sensitivity of the bacteria found to antibacterial drugs, which is necessary for further treatment.
In this situation, in addition to standard tests, the study of secretions of the urethra, urinary ducts and wash water from the rectum is performed. All this together gives a clear picture of the disease and makes it possible to cure it most effectively.
Gonorrhea treatment regimen
The main principle: it is imperative to treat sexual partners who have gonococci detected using the culture method. Acute and chronic gonorrhea requires an etiotropic approach, that is, an impact on the cause of the disease.
Therapy with antibiotics, which are taken orally, is always carried out on the background of hepatoprotectors (Kars) and probiotics (Linex, yogurt). Local eubiotics (intravaginal) - acylact, lacto-and bifidumbacterin. It will be useful and the appointment of antifungal drugs (fluconazole).
The temptation to heal on your own is better to stop right away, as the antibiotic may not work and gonorrhea will become chronic, and drugs are increasingly causing allergies and its complication — anaphylactic shock — develops with lightning speed. And most importantly: only the doctor makes a reliable diagnosis of gonorrhea, based on objective data.
Of the antibiotics in the treatment of gonorrhea in women, preference is given to penicillin, cephalosporin, and fluorochlorine drugs:
- Ceftriaxone 0.25 g or gentamicin 2.0 g / m
- Sumamed 2 g (analogues Zi-factor, Azitroks, Hemomitsin, Azitsid, Ecomed)
- Cefixime 0.4 g or ciprofloxacin 0.5 g orally
Acute ascending gonorrhea is treated with the following drugs6
- Ceftriaxone 1 g intramuscularly 1 time a day during the week, ciprofloxacin 500 mg i / v 2 times a day 7 days, ofloxacin 0.4 g 2 times a day during the week.
- Other antibiotics are also possible (tetracycline, clindamycin, rifampicin, bicillin, josamycin, ofloxacin, etc.)
- Treatment of chronic gonorrhea is supplemented with immunity stimulants and gonococcal vaccine (pyrogenal, methyluracil, levamisole, prodigiosan).
- Effectively activates the body's defenses autohemotherapy.
Since gonorrhea is often combined with trichomoniasis and / or chlamydia, Doxycycline for 10 days and Metronidazole preparations for 5-7 days are connected to therapy. Topical treatment consists of washing the urethra with a 0.5% silver nitrate solution, syringing the vagina with solutions of manganese, protargol, chlorhexidine, miramistin and chamomile decoction.
In some cases, use of new treatment regimens, using 2 drugs - Azithromycin (inside) + Gentamicin (injection) or another combination - Hemifloxacin + Azithromycin orally.
This is due to the fact that in the last decade, WHO has been concerned about the increase in cases of development of resistance of the gonorrhea pathogen to some antibiotics, for example, the main UK health expert, Sally Davis, said that in 2013, 80% of clinical cases determined tetracycline gonorrhea pathogen.
For the entire period of treatment sex and alcohol are prohibited!
If a woman has entered into unprotected sexual intercourse and is afraid of contracting gonococcus, it is recommended that emergency prevention measures be taken, including:
- bladder emptying (preferably twice),
- thorough processing with warm water and soap inside the thighs and external genitalia,
- the introduction of solutions of Miramistin or Betadine into the urethra (no more than 1-2 milliliters) and into the vagina (up to 5 milliliters), if after a dangerous contact no more than two hours have passed,
- antiseptic treatment (Miramistin, Chlorhexidine, weak manganese) of the perineum and inner thighs.
No later than 48 hours after a possible infection, you should contact a venereologist, who will conduct an examination and write out a treatment regimen consisting in the therapeutic effects in specific areas.
Routine Gonorrhea Prevention
Preventing gonococcus infection and blocking the spread of the disease are the main tasks of gonorrhea prevention. The risk of infection during intercourse is reduced by using a condom and the subsequent use of chlorine-based antiseptics (miramitan). Washing with ordinary soap and water is ineffective as spermicides. The best way to preserve health remains a reliable partner, preferably in the singular.
Safe sex in gonorrhea without a condom with a patient or carrier of infection is possible, but such actions can hardly be called complete sexual intercourse. Experts include body massage, dry kiss, oral contact with the body, with the exception of the external genital area, self-masturbation and individual sex toys.
Identification of patients with gonorrhea and carriers takes place during scheduled examinations, registration of medical books, during registration of pregnant women. All sexual partners must undergo an examination if gonorrhea symptoms appear after 30 days of contact, and if they are asymptomatic, within 60 days before the diagnosis is made, if at least one of them has signs of the disease. Examine mothers who have children with gonorrhea and girls if they have a clap on their parents or guardians.
The first mention of gonorrhea appeared in the XVI century BC. er in the Egyptian Ebers Papyrus. At the same time, the first methods of treatment were proposed - washing with astringents. Mention of the symptoms of the disease is in the Bible, the works of ancient Greek scientists, Hippocrates, Celsus. Galen called this disease "seed outflow," although he pointed out the need to distinguish it from true ejaculation during sexual arousal. But the name is firmly established and preserved to this day.
The treatment was performed by douching with lead solutions; Avicenna washed the bladder with water from a silver syringe. Elementary preventive measures were identified:
- sex is prohibited up to seven days after the end of the disease,
- isolation - every patient with gonorrhea,
- personal belongings - the bed, the patient's chair and the people with whom he was in contact were considered “unclean”.
The epidemic of syphilis, which swept Europe after the discovery of America, diverted attention from gonorrhea. For a long time, it was considered one of the manifestations of syphilis. In 1527, a French scientist referred them to the group of venereal diseases.
Gradually, the development of microbiology and immunology made it possible to identify the causative agent of the disease, as well as to develop a vaccine, thanks to which it was proved that syphilis and gonorrhea are different diseases.
Features of the pathogen
The development of microbiology in 1879 allowed the German physician Albert Ludwig Neisser to identify the causative agent of gonorrhea. These are cocci, which are shaped like coffee beans and are arranged in pairs. They have the following features.
- Incomplete phagocytosis. In pus, diplococci may be located inside leukocytes, but at the same time they maintain viability. This property explains the ability of the disease to become chronic. It also allows the pathogen to elude the action of drugs, to spread to other parts of the genital organs.
- Low resistance. In the external environment, bacteria quickly die. When heated to 40 ° C, they die in three to six hours, and at 56 ° C in five minutes. Can not withstand cooling. The pus may persist throughout the day. Perish under the influence of salts of silver. Sensitive to penicillins, streptomycin, but during treatment they become resistant to them.
- Antigenic structure. In the process of treatment can seriously change and form L-forms. The latter have a different structure, which allows them to persist in the body for a long time, to move away from the action of antibiotics.
- Immunity. There is no congenital resistance to gonorrhea. And the disease does not protect against re-infection.
The development of the pathological process
The infection is transmitted only from person to person, animals do not get sick. The causes of gonorrhea in women are a sick man and sexual contact with him. Gonococcus can persist in pus, so there is a chance of infection through a common towel, washcloth, underwear. But this method is more relevant for girls.
- Penetration method. Bacteria are often attached to sperm cells, epithelial cells, as well as inside Trichomonas. They act as carriers that help the pathogen penetrate into the overlying sections of the urogenital tract.
- Areas of damage. Are affected sections of the urogenital system, lined with cylindrical epithelium - this is the urethra, cervical canal, fallopian tubes. Oral contacts develop stomatitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis. With rectal - gonorrheal proctitis. In children after childbirth from an infected mother - blepharitis (eye damage).
- Protection in the vagina. The vaginal wall is lined with stratified squamous epithelium, which is not suitable for the life of gonococcus. But with its thinning or loose structure, conditions are created for fixing the microbe. Такие особенности у эпителия появляются во время беременности, в постменопаузе, а также у девочек до полового созревания.
- Проникновение в кровь . Гонококки способны попадать в кровь, но большинство из них гибнет. Оставшиеся разносятся по организму и формируют экстрагенитальные очаги. The joints are most often affected, gonococcal endocarditis and meningitis are less common.
- Incubation period. Usually lasts 3-15 days, very rarely up to a month. In women, it is longer than in men.
Symptoms of gonorrhea in women
Often, the pathology is asymptomatic. Symptoms of gonorrhea in women are non-specific and can be mistaken for symptoms of candidiasis or cystitis. How much gonorrhea manifests itself depends on the number of gonococci and the reactivity of the organism. At the end of the incubation period, the symptoms may not appear or be unexpressed.
- Urination disorders Dysuric disorders are manifested in the form of burning and frequent urging to the toilet. In men, the expiration of pus, hyperemia of the urethra is expressed (in women, this sign is imperceptible). A certain amount of pus can stand out and glue the urethra. But these symptoms are not expressed.
- Vaginal discharge. The appearance of yellowish-white discharge is not always associated with gonorrhea. They are odorless, scanty. This is due to the fact that it is not the vagina itself that is affected, but the cervical canal. Therefore, the discharge may be invisible in the gynecologist's chair during an external examination, and can only be seen in the mirrors.
- Bleeding When running gonorrhea may appear intermenstrual bleeding.
- Lower abdominal pain. This is an unexpressed symptom, which in most cases may be absent.
In women, the process is often multifocal, the urethra and internal organs are affected. Cervical lesions from the outside can not be recognized. On examination, she looks swollen and inflamed. From the cervical canal pus flows.
Gonococcal cervicitis becomes endometritis. This condition worsens, the symptoms become more pronounced. Damage to the uterine muscle layer leads to myometritis. At the same time, the uterus becomes dense, grows in size, hurts during palpation and during intercourse.
From the uterus, gonorrhea quickly spreads to the fallopian tubes and ovaries. Salpingo-oophoritis develops. If the gonococcus tube penetrates into the abdominal cavity through the ampular end of the tube, peritonitis is formed.
Gonorrhea is dangerous during pregnancy with the possibility of infecting a child during childbirth. At the same time, eyes are affected, gonorrheal blepharitis develops. Since the disease may have a latent course and be undiagnosed before delivery, all newborns are prevented: immediately after birth, the eyes are instilled with a 30% Albucid solution. Girls bury him in the genital slit.
Examination and treatment of patients with gonorrhea are engaged in dermatology and venereology. Diagnosis includes a mandatory examination and anamnesis. The doctor finds out the following points:
- time of sexual intercourse,
- the onset of symptoms
- is the person who infected the family member
- whether he is examined.
Next, a mandatory external examination is carried out, lymph nodes are palpated to exclude concomitant pathology, women are examined in a chair.
Women offer to pass a smear on gonorrhea. This is the most reliable way to diagnose. Material for research is taken from the following places:
- cervical canal,
- lateral vaginal vaults,
- large vestibular glands
- paraurethral glands.
A smear is required for microscopic examination. Cultural analysis is carried out according to the results of sowing on special nutrient media. At the same time decoding helps to determine the sensitivity of the pathogen to certain antibiotics.
The following studies are also relevant.
- Analysis of urine . Essential for the detection of concomitant diseases of the urinary system.
- Colposcopy. Examination of the vagina and cervix with a colposcope. Gonorrhea can be accompanied by the formation of cervical erosion, which increases the risk of cancer.
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs. Allows you to see the area of distribution of the inflammatory process in the uterus, appendages. This determines the further tactics of treatment.
According to the testimony in the presence of purulent lesions in the rectum, oral cavity, eyes, consultations are prescribed by a proctologist, an ENT specialist, an ophthalmologist.
Treatment of gonorrhea in women is based on the protocols of the Ministry of Health. They determine the list of drugs at the localization of the infectious process. The scheme of treatment of gonorrhea in women is presented in the table.
Table - Treatment of localized uncomplicated gonorrhea
Method of transmission of gonorrhea
There is, in fact, only one way to transmit this infection - sexual. Gonorrhea is a venereal disease. “Variations on the subject” of sexual contact are allowed:
- transfer is possible during traditional sex,
- genital - oral contact,
- genital - anal,
- even with “innocent” petting for many people (contact of the external genital organs).
A household method can only be infected theoretically. In practice, this happens extremely rarely. And only in those cases when a woman ignores the rules of hygiene and uses personal toilet articles (wears someone else’s underwear, etc.).
Gonococcal infection is unstable to the influence of the external environment, high temperatures and UV exposure. The virus is very contagious, which means that the probability of infection is extremely high (more than seventy percent), even if unprotected sex with a carrier was only once.
The bad news is: gonococcus rarely lives alone. In eighty percent of the infected are still trichomoniasis or chlamydia. The group at high risk of contracting gonorrhea in women includes:
- girls under 24 years old
- women with gonorrhea in the past
- women with other STIs
- Anyone who neglects personal protective equipment (condoms). This could include pregnant women or women leading an asocial lifestyle.
One of the dangerous moments of gonococcal infection is that it is prone to "conquering" the un-conquered territory. Therefore, associated diseases are quite likely: inflammatory processes in the endometrium, ovaries, fallopian tubes and peritoneum.
The latent period lasts from three days to three weeks, it all depends on the strength of the patient's immunity and related factors (for example, taking antibiotics at this moment).
Symptoms of gonorrhea
The first attack of gonococci is directed at those organs that have had direct contact with an infected person. We are talking about traditional as well as oral or anal sex. For example, during normal intercourse, the initial infection will affect the cervix and the female genital tract. In other cases, the rectum, the larynx and all organs located near the affected ones will be involved. No matter what happens, the first and most obvious sign is a festering plaque.
It is worth making a reservation about other, purely female signs. These include:
- a rather thick discharge of yellowish or whitish hue with a dubious "aroma" (unfortunately, many aggravate the disease by self-treatment, taking it for thrush),
- aching lower back, pain gives up,
- aching lower abdomen
- become irregular (tightened and abundant) periods,
- spontaneous (intermenstrual) bleeding appears.
Treatment of gonorrhea in women
Before talking about the treatment, it should be mentioned that if gonorrhea was diagnosed in a partner, it is necessary to examine and treat the man without fail. Choosing how to treat gonorrhea in women, a topical medicine from modern medicine will be offered by a doctor first.
Preparations for getting rid of gonorrhea:
- Preparations of the penicillin group. In this area, nutrient and potassium salts (benzylpenicillin) are most actively used. In acute forms of gonorrhea, it is usually prescribed from three million units. Other forms of the disease require more serious doses: from four to six million units. Treat begin with six hundred thousand (first injection) for three hundred thousand units (subsequent injections). Patients with chronic gonorrhea are treated with intramuscular injections into the buttocks and the muscular layer of the cervix.
- Ekmonovotsillina injection. This composition, which includes novocainic salt (benzylpenicillin) and a solution of ecmoline. Mixing results in a milky white mixture. The resulting medication lasts longer than the preparation of sodium or potassium salts. Secondary injection put in twelve hours. In acute manifestations of the disease for patients, the dose rate ranges from three to six million units.
- Bicillin injection, which can be attributed to the penicillin drugs, long-acting. If the patient has an acute form of the disease (not complicated), then injections are given six hundred thousand units every other day.
- Injection of ampicillin, a semisynthetic antibiotic that is perfectly absorbed into the hematopoietic system. If we are talking about the acute form of the disease, then put on half a gram of ampicillin with an interval of four hours.
Drugs for the treatment of gonorrhea
The causative agent of the disease is extremely adaptive to the drugs, and therefore in the treatment used complex therapy. How to treat gonorrhea in women? The combination of drugs and the regimen is determined by the doctor according to the results of the seeding. Female gonorrhea is generally treated with pills, and during pregnancy they go for suppositories. All drugs are antibiotics of a wide range of interactions and are divided into:
- aminoglycosides and others.
How is smear taken on gonorrhea
The rules for data collection are simple:
- Do not do the procedure during menstruation!
- Before taking a gynecologist, it is not necessary to urinate for 2 hours.
- Smear sampling is performed from the vagina and urethra.
- Scraping is applied to the glass, given to the laboratory.
- Decoding analysis is provided to the patient.
1. Manifestations of gonorrhea in women
Due to the characteristics of the anatomy and physiology, gonococcal infection in women often proceeds almost imperceptibly or has very poor symptoms.
Bacteria can affect not only the mucous membranes of the urinary organs, so the symptoms of gonorrhea can be different in different women. It depends not only on the route of infection, the state of the immune system, the presence of chronic diseases are also of great importance.
1.1. First symptoms
The first signs occur immediately after the end of the incubation period, which for a woman can be from 3 days to 1 month, but usually does not exceed two weeks. They can be pronounced or weak. As a rule, during infection during vaginal intercourse, the following symptoms are observed:
- Discharge from the vagina white, white-green, green, gray-white (mucous and mucopurulent, abundant, friable).
- Urinary disorders (frequent painful urination, increased frequency of toilet visits, burning and itching in the urethra).
- Pulling pains in lower abdomen.
In this case, the general condition may not suffer: the body temperature does not increase, weakness, chills do not arise.
1.2. Damage to the genitourinary system
Primarily gonococci cause inflammation in the urethra, the eve of the vagina and inside it, paraurethral and Bartholin glands.
The most common signs of gonococcal urethritis, vulvovaginitis, cervicitis:
- Intense or moderate pain at the end / beginning of urination, quite sharp.
- Enlarged inguinal lymph nodes.
- Soreness and discomfort during intercourse.
- Gonorrhea is abundant or scanty, mucopurulent, thick, gray-green, yellow-green, gray-white with an unpleasant odor.
- Frequent painful urination.
- Swelling and redness of the opening of the urethra, vulva, vaginal walls, with endocervicitis - the area of the cervix.
There may be an inflammatory process in the Bartholin glands with the development of an abscess. They are a rounded formation with a diameter of 1-2 cm and filled with pus. When the infection spreads to the overlying departments and organs of the pelvis, endometritis, adnexitis, and pelpioperitonitis develop.
1.3. Gonococcal pharyngitis
Infection of the pharyngeal mucosa occurs predominantly during oral sex. Gonococcal pharyngitis often proceeds latently.
The following symptoms may occur:
- Sensation of dryness and pain when swallowing, tickling.
- Enlarged submandibular lymph nodes.
- Redness of the throat area.
- Purulent plaque on the tonsils, their redness and increase in size.
- Unpleasant smell from the mouth.
- Inflammation of the gums and oral cavity (gingivitis, stomatitis) is possible.
Infection occurs during anal sex, as well as when leaking discharge from the vagina to the anus. The disease manifests itself:
- 1 Itching and burning in the region of the anus.
- 2 Constipation, false painful urge to defecate.
- 3 Periodic purulent discharge from the anus, sometimes mixed with blood.
- 4 Goes to the toilet are increasing, bring discomfort.
2. Gonococcal conjunctivitis
Gonococcal infection of the eye can occur at any age and proceeds as inflammation of the iris (iridocyclitis) or conjunctiva (conjunctivitis).
Most often this is due to the introduction of the infection with dirty hands, as well as the general use of hygiene items, including towels. Separately allocate blenrea (gonococcal ophthalmia) of newborns when the child becomes infected when passing through the birth canal of the mother.
- Pronounced swelling of the eyelids (they swell up).
- Photophobia - increased sensitivity to bright light.
- Purulent discharge, which usually accumulates in the corners of the eye, on the eyelashes.
- Redness of the conjunctiva, increased its bleeding.
In advanced cases, ulcers of the cornea, its perforation, blindness develops.
3. Gonorrhea of other organs and systems
Sometimes gonococcal infection occurs with a lesion of the joints - arthritis, articular bags (bursa) - bursitis, bone tissue - osteomyelitis.
Gonorrheal arthritis is characterized by inflammation of a small number (two-three) of large joints, and subsequently - persistent restriction of mobility up to the development of ankylosis. Bursitis and osteomyelitis occur typically.
The other distant organs of gonococci fall through the bloodstream against the background of weakening the body's defenses. At the same time, classical diseases develop:
- myocarditis, endocarditis,
- brain abscess,
- sepsis and so on.
4. Features of mixed infection
In recent years, an atypical course of gonorrhea is often observed against the background of simultaneous infection with gonococcus, chlamydia, mycoplasmas, trichomonads, etc. In this case, the classic symptoms of gonorrhea fade into the background. Mixed infection is more difficult to treat, often becomes chronic.
Against chlamydia, the incubation period for gonorrhea often lengthens to three months. Mixed chlamydial-gonococcal infection has a tendency to chronic course, it is difficult to cure after the first course of antibiotics, as a rule, requires the use of provocative techniques.
Microbial associations contribute to the adaptation of chlamydia to intracellular parasitism and increase their pathogenicity. Long-term effects and severe complications of mixed infections are observed more often.
Trichomonas - are single-celled microorganisms that can "mask" under human cells and "go" from immunity.
Another of their property is to penetrate deep into the host's tissues. Gonococci are capable of staying inside Trichomonas for quite a long time and “hiding” from adverse environmental conditions.
Simply put, antibiotic prescription may not be effective. Gonococci, existing inside Trichomonas, survive and then begin to actively proliferate.
For this reason, a co-infection (gonorrhea + trichomoniasis) has a tendency to a long undulating course with a high risk of chronicity.
Its symptoms depend on the state of the body and the depth of the inflammatory process:
- 1 With good immunity - oligosymptomatic flow, the presence of scanty discharge with an unpleasant odor, soreness or just a feeling of discomfort during sexual intercourse, urination.
- 2 When weakening the defenses - pain during urination, frothy, mucopurulent discharge with an unpleasant smell, during intercourse there is discomfort, soreness and slight bleeding.
Gonorrhea can also be combined with diseases such as syphilis, genital herpes, HPV infection, HIV, candidiasis, and others.
5. Diagnosis and treatment
If any warning symptoms appear, you should undergo a comprehensive examination for STDs.
As a rule, a microscopic smear is taken for this purpose (for flora and GN), and a comprehensive analysis is carried out to detect the DNA of the main causative agents of genital infections by the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR, real-time PCR).
Treatment doctor prescribes on the basis of the results. The scheme necessarily includes one or more antibacterial drugs. At the same time, all sexual partners are treated. Otherwise, the therapy will be useless.
The drugs of choice that have the greatest efficacy for gonorrhea are:
The most common treatment for gonorrhea is offered on an outpatient basis, only pregnant women, children, as well as women with complications and requiring further examination are hospitalized.
2 weeks after the end of the course of antibiotics, repeat analyzes are performed (NASBA - detection of gonococcal RNA in a scraping). PCR can be used no earlier than 30 days after the end of therapy.
Гонорея считается излеченной при двукратном отрицательном результате. With the ineffectiveness of the therapy prescribed, alternative antibiotics are prescribed after bacposev with sensitivity determination.
How does the infection occur?
A woman becomes infected with gonorrhea in the following cases:
- When unprotected intercourse with the carrier of the disease. In 80% of cases, the disease is transmitted in this way, and it does not matter whether it was genital-oral, vaginal or anal sex. Even if the full sexual intercourse did not take place, but the contact of the mucous membranes of the genital organs simply occurred, infection will occur.
- Domestic way. Due to the structure of the genital organs, in this way, the weaker sex is infected with gonorrhea more often than men. Gonococcus is quite tenacious and does not die within 24 hours in a humid environment at room temperature. In water, it can exist for about seven hours, and in a soap solution for up to two hours. If a woman uses someone else's towels, linen, washcloth, soap, and sit on a dirty surface, then the probability of infection is about 5%.
- The child becomes infected with the disease through the birth canal. If a woman has a chronic infection, she got gonorrhea during pregnancy and did not undergo a course of treatment, then the baby may become infected during natural childbirth. Most often, in this case, the eyes of the newborn are affected, less frequently, the genitals (mainly in female babies).
Gonorrhea is at risk for women who have promiscuous sex and who do not use condoms. Also, the risk group includes representatives of the weaker sex, who are less than 25 years old or pregnant (due to weakened immunity). Often gonorrhea is an addition to other sexually transmitted diseases.
Symptoms of the disease
In 20% of women, gonorrhea occurs without visible signs, and it can only be detected with the help of tests. The incubation period can last from 3 to 21 days, depending on how strong is the immune system. Most often, the first symptoms of the disease appear 5 to 10 days after infection.
Gonococcus can affect the mucous membranes of the uterus, appendages, urethra, causing various diseases that are combined by common signs:
- In the initial period of the disease in women appear white discharge. Then they become yellow-green, viscous with an unpleasant odor. If the mucous membrane of the uterus is affected, a mixture of blood appears in the white.
- The disease may be accompanied by itching and burning in the vagina or in the area of the external genital organs.
- With gonorrhea, women experience pain and discomfort during intercourse.
- Often, gonorrhea causes discomfort during urination. There is a feeling of fullness in the bladder, frequent urge, itching and burning during urine output.
- Sometimes patients experience pain in the lower abdomen, which can give into the perineum or back.
- In the event that gonococcus affects the uterus or appendages, the woman may develop general symptoms in the form of fever, weakness, dizziness, nausea, and lack of appetite.
If therapy is not started on time, and the disease has become chronic, then the patient has other signs of gonorrhea:
- The aching pains over the pubis, which can give up in the leg or in the back.
- Greenish not too abundant, viscous discharge with an unpleasant odor.
- Problems with the menstrual cycle, which manifest as too long and heavy periods or bleeding during the period of ovulation.
What is dangerous gonorrhea
Many women wonder how to cure gonorrhea, and what will happen if you do not go to a doctor in time? The causative agent of the disease multiplies rapidly and causes the following pathologies:
- Obstruction of pipes.
- Ectopic pregnancy.
- Miscarriage in early pregnancy.
- Premature delivery.
- Intrauterine fetal death.
- Impaired fetal development.
- Gonorrheal conjunctivitis.
- Spreading gonococcus through the bloodstream, as a result of which it affects the skin, joints, liver, brain.
Very often, women who have been diagnosed with clap are suffering from infertility. This is due to the fact that gonococci cause inflammation, which in turn becomes the cause of adhesions that violate the patency of the pipes.
How to diagnose gonorrhea
In order to confirm the diagnosis, a woman needs to consult a doctor, who will conduct a visual examination and collect an anamnesis. The following tests can also be assigned:
- Smear microscopy. For this, material taken from the vagina is used. It is examined under a microscope, which in half of the cases makes it possible to identify gonococci.
- Bacterial seeding. This is a more accurate method in which the material is placed in a nutrient medium, where under favorable conditions, racing begins to multiply. With bacterial culture, it is possible to determine not only the presence of a microorganism in a smear, but also its sensitivity to antibiotics.
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This is the most modern and accurate method to identify the genetic material of the pathogen in the material taken from the patient.
- Linked immunosorbent assay. Gives the opportunity to identify antibodies to the pathogen in the patient's blood.
If there is a suspicion that the disease is in a latent form, the doctor may order a provocation in the form of lubrication of the urethra and the cervical canal with silver nitrate solution or consuming salty foods and alcoholic beverages. It is also possible to take a smear during menstruation.
When treating gonorrhea, most doctors stop choosing the following remedies.
Examples of additional drugs
Very often, gonorrhea in women seems to be combined with other equally serious venereal diseases. In more than 30% of cases, gonorrhea is combined with chlamydia. In order to get rid of this infection, in addition to the above preparations, a woman can prescribe:
With the combination of gonorrhea and candidiasis, in addition to the main treatment used antifungal agents: Fluconazole, Ketoconazole.
If, against the background of gonorrhea, there is an aggravation of genital herpes, then it may additionally be prescribed:
Apply drugs in accordance with the instructions and recommendations of the attending physician. The duration of therapy can range from 1 to 14 days, depending on the severity of the infection and the sensitivity of its pathogen.
In order to get rid of the disease, use not only injections or tablets. How to treat gonorrhea in women: silver nitrate solution, potassium permanganate, Miramistin solution, chlorhexidine digluconate. Douching procedure is usually carried out once a day for 3 to 5 days.
Also, in addition to the main treatment or for the chronic form of gonorrhea, preparations in the form of suppositories are used:
- Terzhinan. The preparation contains a broad-spectrum antibiotic neomycin sulfate, as well as ternidazole, which allows to fight against trichomoniasis. Terzhinan gives good results if the patient has chlamydia or candidiasis in addition to gonorrhea. Before the introduction of the vaginal tablet for 20 seconds, kept in water, then injected deep into the vagina. The disease is treated for 6 to 10 days, depending on the form of the disease and complications.
- Mikozhinaks. The drug contains chloramphenicol to which some strains of gonococci are sensitive. Also, the drug is actively fighting fungi and chlamydia. For the treatment of a disease, the vaginal tablet is moistened with water and inserted into the vagina before bedtime. Apply the drug for 10 days.
- Hexion. The active ingredient of candles is the antiseptic chlorhexidine digluconate. It effectively fights not only against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, but also influences the simplest microorganisms. In the complex treatment of gonorrhea, 1 supporter of Hexicon is prescribed twice a day. The disease is treated for a week. The positive point is that the drug does not adversely affect the vaginal microflora. It can be used during pregnancy.
- Betadine. The main component of the tool is antiseptic povidone-iodine, which makes it possible to get rid of many disease-causing organisms. Candles are used once a day before bedtime, for 7 - 14 days.
Aids from traditional medicine
It is almost impossible to get rid of gonorrhea without antibiotics, so traditional home treatment methods are auxiliary. They help relieve the inflammatory process and enable mucous membranes to recover faster. To do this, you can use:
- Infusion of chamomile flowers. It allows you to quickly eliminate inflammation and speed up tissue regeneration. To prepare the remedy, a tablespoon of the flowers of this plant is filled with 500 ml of boiling water, the container with the infusion is wrapped in a towel and the medicine is allowed to cool. Means is filtered and used for syringing. The procedure is carried out once a day before bedtime.
- Infusion of calendula flowers. To prepare the product, 10 g of dry raw material is poured with a liter of boiling water and left for an hour. Strain and apply for sedentary baths or for douching. This infusion is antiseptic, and it also strengthens the local immunity.
- A decoction of burdock root. In order to prepare it 5 g of dry raw material pour 250 ml of water and boil on the steam bath for half an hour. Filter and take within 24 hours. Treatment should last 10 days. The decoction helps to strengthen the immune system and allows the body to quickly recover from the disease.
To make the treatment effective
How to treat gonorrhea in women to get rid of her and prevent recurrence:
- For the entire period of treatment to abstain from sex.
- Do not take alcohol while taking medicines.
- Immunity to gonococcus is not produced, so it is imperative to treat the sexual partner in order to avoid reinfection.
- Since the clap very often combined with chlamydia requires a comprehensive treatment.
Ways of infection
There are 3 main ways of getting gonococcal infection in the body:
- When coitus (sexual intercourse). Unprotected sexual contact with a gonorrhea carrier does not leave it possible to avoid infection, be it oral or anal variation. In parallel with the gonococci in the infected organism, Trichomonas, chlamydia, often aggravate the pathology of the genitourinary system.
- In household contacts. What is called household gonorrhea, implies non-compliance with sanitation - the use of someone else's bath accessories, underwear and bed linen. Even children can become infected.
- In utero and during childbirth from mother to child.
The following persons fall into the category of increased risk:
- practicing sex at an early age,
- sexual promiscuous
- ignoring condom protection,
- not intimate hygiene or often using perineal antiseptics,
- suffering from other sexually transmitted infections, gynecological disorders.
Weakened immunity, long courses of hormone therapy, and antibiotic treatment are also favorable factors for the development of gonococci.
Gonorrhea in women has several specific symptoms associated with the structure of the genital organs:
- sensations of pain, inflammation in the urethra (urethra) and lower abdomen,
- vaginal discharge whiter milky or yellowish with the smell of a purulent process,
- the appearance of pus from the urethra,
- purulent inclusions in the urine,
- irritation and swelling of the genitals,
- frequent urination accompanied by burning and itching.
Incubation of gonococci
The first signs of the disease appear from the moment when the pathogens multiply to a critical mass for the immunity. The incubation period for gonorrhea in a weakened woman is 1-7 days, in a healthy one - up to 21 days.
The delay in the appearance of painful, purulent discharge may also be affected by the use of antibiotics, selected independently for the treatment of gonorrhea or prescribed by a doctor in another case.
Reliable protection against infection during intercourse is provided only by a condom. But in an impasse, one can resort to several schemes. In the case of forced coitus or unprotected sex, low-quality condoms should immediately do the following:
- To urinate, so that the urine takes out part of the pathogens that have not yet become established.
- To wash with soap and water, grasping the thighs adjacent to the genitals.
- Within 2 hours after sex, inject Betadine or Miramistin from a vial with a long nozzle: 1–2 ml into the urinary canal, 5 ml into the vagina.
- Moisten the skin around the genitals and surrounding areas with a pink solution of manganese, Miramistin, and an aqueous solution of Chlorhexidine. Do not wipe! These drugs kill the hostile microflora, but do not give a guarantee of complete disinfection.
- An aqueous solution (0.05%) of Chlorhexidine is not only suitable for treating the perineum, it is possible to disinfect the throat if necessary. First rinse several times with water, a solution of soda or salt to wash off the semen. Then take 1-2 tablespoons of chlorhexidine and rinse a minute. You can not swallow! 3 procedures are recommended per day.
If there is a serious reason why it is impossible to go to the doctor, take the antibacterial drug Trichopol - 1 capsule three times a day. At the same time every day put 1 injection with 5 ml of Bicillin with Novocain.
Traditional methods are not able to effectively treat gonorrhea in women. But at home they use herbal decoctions to strengthen the body, relieve symptoms, reduce the time of recovery.
- Burdock At 0.5 liters of water 3 take tablespoons of pharmaceutical raw materials. After boiling boil half an hour on a quiet fire. Cooled to a warm temperature filter. It should be taken at intervals of 60 minutes a tablespoon of 14 days.
- Parsley. Chop greens, select 2 tablespoons. Steam in 500 ml of boiling water for 1 hour. Drug to take 4 times 100 ml.
- Ginseng. The root is famous for its tonic and analgesic properties. Alcohol tincture activates the functions of organs and systems that are oppressed by the disease. Dried shredded root (50 g) to fall asleep in 500 ml of vodka. Insist 3 weeks in a place without access to light. Capacity needs to be shaken every day. Take a teaspoon before breakfast, lunch, dinner.
- You can make ginseng tea. The root is crushed into a powder, a teaspoon of raw material is drawn for 10 minutes in 200 ml of boiling water. You need to drink a tablespoon 3 times a day.
- Infusion of Chinese lemongrass. This remedy helps with gonorrhea due to its immunomodulating effect. Two tablespoons of fruit steamed 600 ml of boiling water for 10 minutes. Strained tea is divided into 3 doses.
Immunomodulatory collection will help cure gonorrhea. Herb zamaniha has anti-inflammatory, firming and tonic properties. Rhodiola rosea improves metabolism, affects gynecological and conjunctival inflammation, reduces pain during disorders, lowers temperature, neutralizes allergic reactions. Nettle not only treats inflammation, but also activates compensatory forces, helps to restore the affected tissues. Rose hips, hawthorn give a lot of vitamins, minerals, acids, antioxidants that help the body cope with the disease.
The collection consists of rhodiola, bait, rosehips - 20 g each, nettle, hawthorn - 15 g each. St. John's wort grass (10 g) is added to enhance the antibacterial, antiseptic, analgesic, regenerating effect. A glass of boiling water will need a tablespoon of the mixture. The collection is boiled for 10 minutes, insist 4 hours. Strain the liquid diluted with a glass of boiling water. The recommended daily intake is 3 servings of 70 ml.
Do not self-treat gonorrhea at home, otherwise you can get very unpleasant consequences.. The disease threatens health, and you can return to normal life only with the help of a doctor and the implementation of his recommendations.
What is a disease?
Before deciding on the intricacies of the treatment process and the types of therapeutic techniques, it is necessary to figure out what is pathology? Gonorrhea is a venereal disease caused by the pathological activity of the specific causative agent of gonococcus Neisser. Transmitted disease mainly through sex. They can become infected during unprotected intercourse.
It should be emphasized that the clap (another name for this disease) is characterized by extremely widespread. According to statistics, every year gonorrhea affects up to two hundred million people.
Moreover, women are much more susceptible to infection. For example, infections in women in the weaker half of humanity account for about 50-70 percent, and the frequency of infection among men is 25-50 percent.
Pathology is characterized by disorders in the functioning of the urogenital system, in addition - lesions of the genital area. With a long course and in the neglected form of the disease, the development of pathological processes in the mucous membranes of the intestine and oral cavity is possible.
Characteristic signs of gonorrhea
Гонорея у женщин достаточно часто может протекать бессимптомно, никак себя не проявляя, что в значительной степени осложняет диагностику заболевания на ранних стадиях его развития. Very often, patients can not even guess their problem. The diagnosis becomes clear during a preventive gynecological examination or during a long course of pathology, when the treatment process is complicated by a number of associated diseases and negative manifestations. The duration of the latent period is equal to a time interval of five to ten days. The following factors are commonly attributed to the characteristic symptoms of gonorrhea in women:
- Uterine bleeding.
- Disorders of the menstrual cycle.
- Strong pain in the lower abdomen.
- Frequent urination, which may be false.
- Increased body temperature.
- Difficult urination accompanied by pain, discomfort, and burning sensation.
- Pain in the larynx.
- The appearance of vaginal discharge purulent character with an unpleasant, specific smell.
- The appearance of itching in the genital area
- Puffiness and redness of the skin of the external genital organs.
- Painful sensations of a pulling nature arising in the lumbar region.
- Soreness and discomfort that occurs during intercourse.
It should be emphasized that gonorrhea is a dangerous disease affecting the urogenital system, and is fraught with the development of severe complications. Therefore, if you detect at least several of the above symptoms, you should seek the advice of a specialist and, after the prescribed examination, undergo the necessary treatment.
What is dangerous pathology?
Tripper is a disease, especially dangerous for its complications. The presented pathology, with a long course and lack of adequate therapy, strikes a blow to all organs and systems of the body, affects the heart and joints. A significant limitation of articular mobility can lead to complete disability of the patient.
The development of gonorrhea in women is fraught with the emergence of an active inflammatory process that affects the appendages, uterine mucous membranes. This can lead to impaired reproductive function, problems with conception and infertility.
In addition, the most common complication of gonorrhea in women is the following:
- Inflammation of the fallopian tubes purulent nature.
- Bartholin gland abscess.
- The formation of tubo-ovarian tumors.
- Obstruction of fallopian tubes.
- High risks of ectopic pregnancy.
If a pregnant woman is sick with gonorrhea, then the possible complications can be spread not only to her, but also to the future baby. There is a high probability of infecting the baby during the birth process, as it progresses through the genital tract. Pathogenic gonococcus can affect the genitals and mucous membranes of the baby’s eyes, causing such a dangerous disease as blenorrhea. In addition, the risks of spontaneous abortion in early pregnancy and preterm labor are high.
To avoid the development of such adverse effects and to reduce the possible risks to a minimum, it is recommended to regularly visit the gynecological office and undergo preventive examinations, thanks to which it will be possible to detect gonorrhea in its early stages.
Treatment of gonorrhea should begin with confirming the diagnosis and determining the causative agent of the disease. Since the disease does not have a pronounced characteristic symptoms, the following types of laboratory tests are assigned to diagnose it, identify the severity and form of gonorrhea, the patient:
- Bacteriological analysis.
- Immunological study.
- Bacterioscopic analysis.
- Immunofluorescent study.
- Taking smears from the vagina, cervix and urethra for subsequent microscopic examination.
- Cultural studies.
- PCR diagnostics.
- Linked immunosorbent assay.
- General blood analysis.
A comprehensive diagnosis allows you to avoid medical errors in diagnosis and prescribe the optimal course of treatment.
The main methods of therapy
How to treat gonorrhea in women? To combat this disease, antibiotic therapy is used, which consists in the use of drugs aimed at bacteriostatic damage of the main pathogens of pathology - gonococci. In most cases, patients are prescribed the following drugs:
Given the fact that the use of antibiotics has many contraindications and adverse side effects, the choice of the drug, the definition of the dosage and duration of the therapeutic course should be carried out exclusively by a qualified specialist.
More recently, tablets relating to new-generation drugs have appeared on the pharmaceutical market, capable of eliminating gonorrhea symptoms at the acute stage at a time. These include the following medications:
The same drugs are used for the chronic form of tripper, however, in this case, a longer therapeutic course is needed.
On average, the duration of antibiotic treatment is about a week.
Vaginal suppositories (Betadine, Hexion and others) can be used to promptly eliminate the painful symptoms of the disease. However, with this disease, local treatment is not enough and you need to connect systemic therapy.
In addition, the following methods are used to combat pathology:
- Physical therapy aimed at improving blood flow and lymph flow, as well as eliminating the pathological consequences of the inflammatory process.
- Laser therapy
- Immunotherapy is aimed at activating the body's opposition to gonococcal infection, increasing cellular susceptibility to the effects of antibiotic drugs. For these purposes, patients are prescribed the use of Pyrogenal and the use of gonococcal vaccine.
Gonorrhea in women occurs with mild symptoms and is fraught with the development of numerous complications from the reproductive system, which greatly complicates the treatment process for this disease.
However, timely diagnosis and strict adherence to medical recommendations increases the likelihood of complete recovery of the patient to one hundred percent!
How to treat gonorrhea in women
The basis of the treatment of all infectious diseases is antibacterial therapy. Gonorrhea is no exception. Only antibiotics can eliminate the infection, interrupting the effect of the underlying cause of the disease. Prescription drugs, the choice of treatment regimen and control over the effectiveness of therapy is carried out by a doctor.
Different antibiotics for gonorrhea separately for women and men exist, and even used in practice. But over time, their effectiveness decreases to a complete loss of the ability to fight gonococcus, and the expediency of such a division is questionable.
As in men, gonorrhea in women causes inflammation of the urinary organs. Symptoms are less frequent and weaker, but this does not mean that the risk of damage to the internal genital organs is lower. Gonorrhea in women significantly impairs reproductive health, can lead to infertility, transmission of infection to the child during childbirth.
When treating gonorrhea in women, it is important:
- Do not forget about the presence of multi-resistant strains of gonococcus resistant to the most common antibiotics. For the treatment to be successful, the sensitivity of the causative agent to antibiotics must be determined.
- Do not forget that gonorrhea is often transmitted in the “bouquet” of other diseases. Most often it is chlamydia, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus.
- Do not neglect the control success of treatment. After the course, a cure can only be confirmed by a negative result of PCR analysis for gonorrhea.
- Do not forget about the complications of gonorrhea. Despite the seeming “simplicity” of a gonococcal infection, gonorrhea in women often causes serious complications in the form of inflammation of the uterus, cervix, and uterine lining. In severe cases, it can lead to inflammation of the abdominal cavity (since the female genital organs have direct communication with her). As a result, women are more likely to experience complicated gonorrhea, which requires inpatient treatment.
- Not limited to only local means. Some doctors and patients overestimate the importance of vaginal suppositories with antiseptics for gonorrhea. In practice, basic antibacterial treatment provides almost 100% cure without any local preparations, procedures, douching, etc.
- Do not forget about all sexual partners. Gonorrhea does not lead to the formation of persistent immunity, reinfection is possible immediately after cessation of therapy. For the period of treatment, it is necessary to exclude any sexual contact and carefully monitor hygiene.
- Do not be afraid of side effects if a woman is pregnant. In such cases, the treatment of the infection is the most aggressive, but relatively safe drugs are chosen. The possible risk of side effects of antibiotic therapy is significantly lower than the risk of losing a child or complications in the mother and fetus.
Prevention of gonorrhea
In order to prevent infection with the disease, a woman needs special attention to choose a sexual partner. You also need to follow the following rules:
- When having sex with partners who are not reliable use condoms.
- Follow the rules of personal hygiene.
- All persons with whom an infected patient has had sex during the past eight weeks should be examined and treated.
- When visiting public toilets use special linings.
- Do not use someone else's towels or linen.
- After unprotected sex, use Miramistin or Chlorhexidine Bigluconate to treat the genitals.
- Increase immunity, maintain a healthy lifestyle and give up bad habits.
- If there was unprotected sexual intercourse with a carrier of the disease, it is necessary to consult a doctor and get tested, even if there are no visible signs of the disease.
If you detect signs of disease, you should consult a gynecologist or a venereologist. It is not recommended to self-treat the disease, as this may lead to the process becoming chronic.
How is the treatment?
The main drug is considered to be antibiotics. They destroy the gonococci, do not allow them to divide and create new cells. Gradually, the pathogens are completely destroyed. Recovery is considered final if a month after treatment, gonococci are not recorded in the test results.
During therapy, patients are prescribed the following medications:
- antibiotics intramuscularly - Ceftriaxone or Spectinomycin,
- antibiotics in pills - usually women are advised to take Ciprofloxacin or Cefixime once. It is also possible to use Azithromycin,
- if gonorrhea is chronic, then a ten-day intake of Trihopol is prescribed,
- for the prevention of candidiasis due to the use of antibiotics, should be drunk antifungal drugs (Fluconazole, Itraconazole II, etc.)
- hepatoprotectors - agents that protect the liver from the negative effects of drugs,
- probiotics to improve the work of the intestines, they are drunk either during the course of antibiotics, or immediately after them. The minimum period is two weeks. Common drugs include: Bifiform, Eubikor, Linex.
The duration of treatment and dosage is prescribed by the doctor, based on the form of gonorrhea (acute or chronic), the patient's condition, comorbidities and the presence of contraindications (for example: allergy to a certain type of antibiotics).
In most cases, gonorrhea is detected along with chlamydia or trichomoniasis. In these situations, patients are prescribed the use of Doxycycline (from the tetracycline group) or Azithromycin (from the group of macrolides).
A tripper of this form is accompanied by vivid symptoms that worsen the quality of life of the patient.
Treatment of acute gonorrhea:
- During the week, a course of treatment with Ceftriaxone. It is administered once a day, intramuscularly or intravenously.
- Twice a day, the drug Spectinomycin is administered intramuscularly.
- Cefotaxime or Ciprofloxacin should be injected intravenously three times a day.
After the symptoms have passed and the pain is relieved, it is necessary to continue taking antibiotics. If you stop the treatment, the disease will only worsen.
Features of therapy
Over time, gonococci become more resistant to antibiotics, they mutate and adapt to many drugs. In some cases, standard treatment remains unsuccessful.
During treatment, observe the following rules:
- any sex is prohibited until the patient is removed from the register,
- together with the patient, her partner or several partners (if necessary) should be treated,
- medications, the duration of treatment and the dosage can be prescribed only by a doctor. It is forbidden to engage in self. This can lead to gonorrhea becoming chronic,
- do not trust the stories about the fact that one injection will cure a tripper. Only an integrated approach is needed. A single injection will only eliminate the symptoms, but it will not affect gonococci, the infection will continue to develop, but often asymptomatic.
How to treat clap during pregnancy
Gonorrhea affects the development of the baby. During childbirth, children become infected, their eyes suffer. The probability of total blindness is almost fifty percent of cases. In girls, the genitals are also affected.
After identifying gonokokkov doctors prescribe treatment. Women are prescribed a course of antibiotics that do not harm the development of the fetus. They are strictly contraindicated drugs from the group of tetracycline, fluoroquinolone and sulfanilamide. Usually, treatment is carried out with a single injection of Ceftriaxone or Spectinomycin. The patient is injected intramuscularly.
If gonorrhea has led to complications, then the woman is hospitalized. She is prescribed a course of Chorioamnionitis and a seven-day antibiotic treatment. Ampicillin is injected intramuscularly, four times a day.
Therapy with folk remedies is an additional method, they do not replace medical preparations.
Baths and herbal medicine strengthen the immune system, help in the fight against gonorrhea, but can not destroy the gonococci. It is recommended to resort to national methods for chronic gonorrhea, during remission.
- Antiseptic and anti-inflammatory effects have a decoction of sage or chamomile. On their basis, take sedentary baths, gargle, make microclysters.
- Take the broth made from burdock, dill and parsley. It is a diuretic that helps to quickly flush out gonococci from the body.
- Daily drink a few drops of tincture of ginseng or golden root, diluted in water. This remedy strengthens the immune system.
Is it possible to protect against gonorrhea
One hundred percent guarantee of protection is provided by barrier methods of contraception - condoms. If a woman still had random and unprotected sex, then you can reduce the chance of infection. But this is not a panacea for tripper.
- Immediately after intercourse, an empty bladder is required. If it works, then two times. This will wash away the gonococci from the urethra.
- Rinse lips, thighs, buttocks and vagina with soap and water.
- 3. Enter up to 5 milliliters of Miramistin into the vagina, and up to 2 milliliters into the urethra. You can use a bottle of Betadine, it is even equipped with a special urological nozzle.
- Thoroughly treat the hips, large and small labia, perineum and buttocks with Chlorhexidine or another antiseptic.
- Within two days after unprotected sex, contact a gynecologist or a dermatovenerologist. The doctor will examine the patient and prescribe drugs for the prevention of gonorrhea. Only after two weeks it will be possible to pass tests for the presence of gonococci in the body.
Instead of Miramistin, a weak solution of potassium permanganate can be introduced into the vagina and urethra.
Recently picked up a clap. I never thought that this would happen to me. The guy guaranteed that he was clean and not contagious. I was treated, Ceftriaxone injections and other pills were prescribed. And the young man, having learned about the disease, simply merged.
I did not think about the safety of sex. As a result - fresh gonorrhea. He was treated in a dermatovenerologic dispensary. Final tests showed that I am healthy. The treatment was a pretty penny, condoms are cheaper and safer!
Tripper affects both men and women. The chance of becoming infected after unprotected sex is more than 70%. The disease proceeds with a bright symptomatology.
Treatment is prescribed by a dermatovenerologist or gynecologist. The basis of therapy consists of antibiotics, also prescribed drugs that increase immunity and protect against candidiasis. At home, the treatment is carried out in remission, but it does not replace antibiotic therapy.